COMPREHENSIVE IN CONTENT
This program is an integrated approach to dealing with health and social issues such as:
The curriculum is organised into eight key areas to cover all critical issues in the one required program ensuring a balanced program with continuity of topics from grade to grade. It emphasises child centred, action oriented teaching methods and the building of self-esteem of the teacher.
Below is shown examples of subject matter which may be included, depending on the local situation and needs:
AREA 1 THE WHOLE HUMAN
Giving children a basic health knowledge of human growth and development and ways in which the body best functions.
KNOWING YOUR BODY: Structure, function and care of the body, Internal organs and systems, Mental health, Physical changes in adolescence, Genetic inheritance, Concept of health as physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual, Importance and value of health, health problems
WAYS WE GROW AND CHANGE: Growth and development, Measuring physical growth, Healthy bodily growth, Sexual development, Stages of life, Emotional and social changes in adolescence, Genetic inheritance, Genetic diseases, Health and disability, Managing life circumstances
WORK, REST AND PLAY, Physical exercise, Sleep and rest, Creative activities, Mental, social and spiritual development, Balancing work and leisure, Stress and sickness, Managing life circumstances
AREA 2 RESPONSIBILITY AND HEALTH
Helping children to determine where they have responsibilityand control over their own health and that of their community; where they can by conscious choices determine their future health and lifestyle.
MY RIGHTS, MY RESPONSIBILITIES: Rights of the child: survival, protection, development, participation, Fundamental needs and rights: love, security and recognition, Rights of the girl child, Responsibilities and duties associated with rights
MAKING DECISIONS, CHANGING BEHAVIOURS: Personal health care, Self maintenance, Habit formation, Behavioural changes, Developing right attitudes and values, Self-reliance, self-control, independance, Making decisions, choices, Leadership, Work or job satisfaction, leisure, Goal setting
MYSELF AND OTHERS: Self-esteem, Individual difference, Self expression, controlling emotions, Managing stress, Conflict, Responsibility for actions, Communication
COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY: Community health, Concept of community, Situational analysis, participation, Responsibility for health of the young, aged and handicapped, School and community, Community facilities, services, information, Social behaviour
AREA 3 SOCIAL HEALTH
Helping children to explore and understand the feelings, attitudes and values of themselves and others and how they may facilitate positive human relationships and sound mental health.
THE ART OF LOVING: "Love is the active concern for the life and growth of that which we love." , Communication, negotiation, Developing relationships, recognising and accepting strengths and weaknesses, Maintaining relationships; loyalty, support, cooperation, Sharing problems, privacy, Liking and loving, Forms of love
HEALTHY MINDS: Changing moods and feelings, Self concept, self esteem, Relaxation, recreation, Effect of food and drugs on mental health, Seeking help, Loss and grief
IN MY FAMILY: Family structures, different kinds of families, Family life, Parenting, father's responsibility, mother's responsibility, Sexuality, Family planning; size, spacing, timing births, Safe motherhood, Child growth
ACTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES: Decisions and behaviour, Making choices, Problem solving, decision making, opinions, actions, Social customs, cultural customs, intercultural understanding, Authority, discipline, self-discipline, Violence in today's world; civil, national, international, sporting, Conflict and conflict resolution
AREA 4 SAFETY HEALTH
Helping children understand the consequences of risk-taking behaviour and the means of facilitating a safe living environment for themselves and others.
UNDERSTANDING SAFETY: Concepts of accident, challenge and risk taking behaviour, accident prone, Hazards; causal factors, environmental factors, loss control management, Accidents; attitudes and human behaviour, senses and fear, Accident data, legislative action, Fail safe, protective behaviour
CREATING SAFE ENVIRONMENTS: At home: Handling and lifting household items, Fires and cooking, Handling electricity, Storage of poisons, Dangerous rooms, various types of housing At school: Child's responsibility at school, Teacher's responsibility, Excursions In the workplace: risk control management, Working with machines, In the factory, on the building site, In the field
SAFETY IN THE COMMUNITY: Fire safety, fire fighters, Safety on and in the water, Protective devices; helmets, seatbelts, protective clothing, Violence in today's world, Recreational safety, safety in sport, Traffic conditions; road conditions, traffic hazards, road signs, Pedestrian safety, Cycles, bikes, Buses, trains and aeroplanes
COPING WITH EMERGENCY: Staying calm, appropriate actions, Trauma, from abrasion to paraplegia, First aid; burns, sprains, cuts, CPR, snake and animal bites, Disaster management
AREA 5 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
Helping children to adapt to change in themselves and their environment and the means of establishing a viable relationship with their living environment. It investigates the reciprocal relationships between humans, disease and environment.
THE WORLD AROUND US: The natural environment, World environment, forests, water resources, ozone layer, earth warming, Industrialisation & health; pollution, gases, water vapour, noise, Human adaptation, concept of ecology, Overpopulation
WATER, WASTE AND HEALTH: Needs for water and uses of water, waste and waste disposal, Water supply, collection, maintenance, treatment, Sewage and toilets, drainage, Garbage and disposal
HUMAN LIVING ENVIRONMENT: Social, natural built, The domestic environment, The school environment, The work environment, The recreational environment, Public places; shrines, community gathering places
DISEASE DESTROYS HEALTH: Mental, social and physical factors which determine health and disease, Being ill (signs and symptoms) and being well, Factors affecting wellness, Transmission of disease causing organisms, Protection from disease, disorder, Protection, prevention, control, cure, Sources of disease; communicable, non-communicable, Immunisation, Effects of disease on individual, family, community, Temporary, long term and permanent diseases, Infectious disease processes, Immune reactions (antigens and antibodies), Medical research and disease control, Role of individuals and organisations in disease control, National and international efforts at disease control, Law, media, education, History of treatment and control
AREA 6 NUTRITION
Helping children to make valid choices about food and to understand the factors which affect those choices.
THE FOOD WE EAT: Wide range of foods available, origins of food, food types, Food groups, food pyramid, food production, Processed food, "artificial" food, fresh food (kitchen garden, school garden), Food availability, access to different foods, Food quality, food conservation, nutritive value, Food adulterants, food fortification, Worldwide food production and distribution
SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF FOOD: Eating a wide variety of foods, balanced diet, Food likes and dislikes, food preferences, criteria for choosing, Safe food preparation and storage, Fast foods, food values, Fads and fallacies, Food hygiene, Food requirements for different age groups, food for the family, Factors affecting food choice, social and emotional influences, Food preparation for maximum nutrition
NUTRITION AND HEALTH: Good eating habits, digestion of food, Nutrition, energy and growth, Malnutrition, deficiency diseases, Food borne illnesses, food related allergies, Feeding during illnesses, Structure, function and care of the digestive system, The food needs of special groups: infants, pregnant mothers, breastfeeding mothers, adolescents, the aged, Temporary and long term effects of the foods we eat, Emotions, moods and foods, Data collection on nutritive status
FOOD IN SOCIETY: Food in different cultures, climates and for different lifestyles, Food technology, Food through the ages, Sanitation in eating establishments, Food advertising, peer pressure, economic factors, Religious practices, social and cultural customs, vegetarianism, fasting, Law and rights concerning food, Roles and actions of organisations, nutrition programs
AREA 7 SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Helping children identify reasons for use of drugs and drug taking and forces involved in the misuse of drugs.
CARE WITH DRUGS: Care with medicines, Care with household substances, Substances which modify mood and behaviour, Common and special usage (dietary use, pain relief), How drugs work, How to say NO! (moderation and abstinence), Drug free pain relief, Self medication
DRUG ABUSE AND MISUSE:Tobacco usage - how it starts, Smoking and health, Patterns and detrimental effects of smoking, Passive smoking, Problem of alcohol misuse, Social / chronic use of alcohol, Recreational use of drugs, Emotional health and addiction
DRUGS IN SOCIETY: Common and special usage of drugs (ceremonial, social), Emotional, social, male, female, reasons/ patterns in drug use, Drink driving, Adolescent pressures and self-esteem, Addiction and approaches to treatment, Drug-free treatment, Societal values in use of medications and common substances, Controls on purchase, Advertising and the media, Local and national concerns and the law, Agencies which assist
AREA 8 CONSUMER HEALTH
Helping children identify and discriminate between health care, goods and services as consumers of those services.
HEALTH CARE: Availability, accessibility, acceptability, affordability, Use and misuse, Services provided, Equity in use, Priorities - planners, providers, consumers, Standards of delivery of health care, Economics of health care, Village, district, state, national (existing, needs) , Health economics, WHO, worldwide health care, Iatrogenic problems, Information
HEALTH GOODS AND PRODUCTS: Medical products, Goods available, choices, Product claims, Product standards, responsibility of manufacturer, Advertising, mass media, Attitudes and values, Self-diagnosis, self-medication, reliance, Legal protection and rights
PRACTITIONERS AND SERVICES: Local practitioners, traditional practitioners, Alternative medicine, History of medicine, growth of community health, Nurses and social services, Welfare agencies, "help" agencies, Roles of health workers in the community, Dental care, other specialists, Agency, consumer protection, consumer rights